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Admendments to the Constitution of the United States of America


			Congress of the United States,
	begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the Fourth 
	of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.

	THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of 
their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent 
misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and 
restrictive clauses should be added:  And as extending the ground of 
public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent 
ends of its institution.

	RESOLVED, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress Assembled, two thirds of both Houses 
concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures 
of the several States, as Amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths 
of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as 
part of the said Constitution; viz.t.

	ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of
the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by 
the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article 
of the original Constitution...

Frederick Augustus Muhlenburg  Speaker of the House of Representatives.
John Adams, Vice-President of the United States, and President of the 
Senate.

Attest, John Beckley, Clerk of the House of Representatives.

        Sam. A. Otis  Secretary of the Senate.



Amendment I (December 15, 1791)
	Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of 
	religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging 
	the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the 
	people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for 
	a redress of grievances.

Amendment II
	A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of 
	a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, 
	shall not be infringed.

Amendment III
	No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, 
	without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a 
	manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV
	The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
	papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, 
	shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon 
	probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and 
	particularly describing the place to be searched, and the 
	persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V
	No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise 
	infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a 
	Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, 
	or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or 
	public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same 
	offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb, nor shall 
	be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against 
	himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without
	due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for 
	public use without just compensation.

Amendment VI
	In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right
	 to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State 
	and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which 
	district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to 
	be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be 
	confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory 
	process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the 
	Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Amendment VII
	In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall 
	exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be 
	preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise 
	re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according 
	to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII
	Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines 
	imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX
	The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not 
	be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X (December 15, 1791)
	The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
	nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States 
	respectively, or to the people.

Amendment XI (February 7, 1795)
	The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
	extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted 
	against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, 
	or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

Amendment XII (June 15, 1804)
	The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
	ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, 
	shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; 
	they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as 
	President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as 
	Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons 
	voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-
	President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they 
	shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the 
	government of the United States, directed to the President of 
	the Senate;_The President of the Senate shall, in the presence 
	of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
	certificates and the votes shall then be counted;_The person 
	having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the 
	President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of 
	Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then 
	from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three 
	on the list of those voted for as President, the House of 
	Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the 
	President.  But in choosing the President, the votes shall be 
	taken by states, the representation from each state having one 
	vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or 
	members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the 
	states shall be necessary to a choice.  *(And if the House of 
	Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right 
	of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March 
	next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, 
	as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
	the President)._The person having the greatest number of votes 
	as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number 
	be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if 
	no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers 
	on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum 
	for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number 
	of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be 
	necessary to a choice.  But no person constitutionally 
	ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to 
	that of Vice-President of the United States.
	*(see section 3 of 20th Amendment)

Amendment XIII (December 6, 1865)
	Section 1.  Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except 
	as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been 
	duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any 
	place subject to their jurisdiction.

	Section 2.  Congress shall have power to enforce this article 
	by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XIV (July  9, 1868)
	Section 1.  All persons born or naturalized in the United States, 
	and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the 
	United States and of the State wherein they reside.  No State 
	shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges 
	or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any
	State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without 
	due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
	the equal protection of the laws.

	Section 2.  Representatives shall be apportioned among the 
	several States according to their respective numbers, counting 
	the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not 
	taxed.  But when the right to vote at any election for the choice 
	of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, 
	Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers 
	of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied 
	to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one 
	years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way 
	abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime,
	the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the 
	proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear 
	to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age 
	in such State.

	Section 3.  No person shall be a Senator or Representative 
	in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or 
	hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, 
	or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as 
	a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, 
	or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive 
	or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution 
	of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or 
	rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the 
	enemies thereof.  But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of 
	each House, remove such disability.

	Section 4.  The validity of the public debt of the United States, 
	authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of 
	pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection 
	or rebellion, shall not be questioned.  But neither the United 
	States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation 
	incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United 
	States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; 
	but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal 
	and void.

	Section 5.  The Congress shall have power to enforce, by 
	appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

Amendment XV (February 3, 1870)
	Section 1.  The right of citizens of the United States to vote 
	shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any 
	State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

	Section 2.  The Congress shall have power to enforce this article 
	by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XVI (February 3, 1913)
	The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, 
	from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the 
	several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

Amendment XVII (April 8, 1913)
	The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators 
	from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and 
	each Senator shall have one vote.  The electors in each State 
	shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most 
	numerous branch of the State legislatures.

	When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the 
	Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs 
	of election to fill such vacancies:  Provided, That the 
	legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to 
	make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies 
	by election as the legislature may direct.

	This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the 
	election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid 
	as part of the Constitution.

Amendment XVIII* (January 16, 1919)
	Section 1.  After one year from the ratification of this article 
	the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors 
	within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof 
	from the United States and all territory subject to the 
	jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

	Section 2.  The Congress and the several States shall have 
	concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

	Section 3.  This article shall be inoperative unless it shall 
	have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the 
	legislatures of the several States, as provided in the 
	Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission 
	hereof to the States by the Congress.
	*(see 21st Amendment)

Amendment XIX (August 18, 1920)
	The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be 
	denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on 
	account of sex.

	Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
	appropriate legislation.

Amendment XX (January 23, 1933)
	Section 1.  The terms of the President and Vice President shall
	end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators 
	and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years 
	in which such terms would have ended if this article had not 
	been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

	Section 2.  The Congress shall assemble at least once in every 
	year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of 
	January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

	Section 3.  If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term 
	of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice
	President elect shall become President.  If a President shall 
	not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning 
	of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to 
	qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President
	until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may 
	by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect 
	nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who 
	shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is 
	to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly 
	until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

	Section 4.  The Congress may by law provide for the case of 
	the death of any of the persons from whom the House of 
	Representatives may choose a President whenever the right 
	of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case 
	of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may 
	choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall 
	have devolved upon them.

	Section 5.  Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of
	October following the ratification of this article.

	Section 6.  This article shall be inoperative unless it shall 
	have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the 
	legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within 
	seven years from the date of its submission.

Amendment XXI (December 5, 1933)
	Section 1.  The eighteenth article of amendment to the 
	Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

	Section 2.  The transportation or importation into any State, 
	Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or 
	use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws 
	thereof, is hereby prohibited.

	Section 3.  This article shall be inoperative unless it shall 
	have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by 
	conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, 
	within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the 
	States by the Congress.

Amendment XXII (February 27, 1951)
	Section 1.  No person shall be elected to the office of the 
	President more than twice, and no person who has held the 
	office of President, or acted as President, for more than 
	two years of a term to which some other person was elected
	 President shall be elected to the office of the President 
	more than once.  But this Article shall not apply to any person 
	holding the office of President when this article was proposed 
	by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be 
	holding the office of President, or acting as President, during 
	the term within which this Article becomes operative from 
	holding the office of President or acting as President during 
	the remainder of such term.

	Section 2.  This article shall be inoperative unless it shall 
	have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the 
	legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
	years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

Amendment XXIII (March 29, 1961)
	Section 1.  The District constituting the seat of government of 
	the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress 
	may direct:

	A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to
	the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to 
	which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in 
	no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in 
	addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be 
	considered, for the purposes of the election of President and 
	Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they 
	shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided 
	by the twelfth article of amendment.

	Section 2.  The Congress shall have power to enforce this 
	article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXIV (January 23, 1964)
	Section 1.  The right of citizens of the United States to vote 
	in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, 
	for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or 
	Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by 
	the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any 
	poll tax or other tax.

	Section 2.  The Congress shall have power to enforce this article 
	by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXV (February 10, 1967)
	Section 1.  In case of the removal of the President from office 
	or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become 
	President.

	Section 2.  Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the 
	Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President 
	who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of 
	both Houses of Congress.

	Section 3.  Whenever the President transmits to the President 
	pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of 
	Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to 
	discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he 
	transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such 
	powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as 
	Acting President.

	Section 4.  Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either 
	the principal officers of the executive departments or of such 
	other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the 
	President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the 
	House of Representatives their written declaration that the 
	President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his
	office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers 
	and duties of the office as Acting President.

	Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro 
	tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of 
	Representatives his written declaration that no inability 
	exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office 
	unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal 
	officers of the executive department or of such other body as 
	Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the 
	President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House 
	of Representatives their written declaration that the President 
	is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office.  
	Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within 
	forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session.  If the 
	Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter 
	written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within 
	twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines 
	by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to 
	discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President
	shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; 
	otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of 
	his office.

Amendment XXVI (July 1, 1971)
	Section 1.  The right of citizens of the United States, who are 
	eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or 
	abridged by the United States or any State on account of age.

	Section 2.  The Congress shall have the power to enforce this 
	article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXVII (May 7, 1992)
	No Law, varying the compensation for the services of the 
	Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an 
	election of Representatives shall have intervened.

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